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Without doubt the most important qawwal is Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan & Party -- "Party" is a generic term for a qawwali ensemble but is also used in Sikhism and to describe some classical music ensembles, for example, shehnai maestro Bismillah Khan & Party. Dubbed Shahen-Shah-e-Qawwali (the Brightest Star in Qawwali), he was born on October 13, 1948, in Lyallpur in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. He made his first recording in 1973 in Pakistan and a number of early EMI (Pakistan) albums jointly billed him with his uncle Mubarak Ali Khan. Since these mainly cassette albums were invariably undated and numerous, it is difficult to place them in any more accurate chronological sequence than catalog-number order. Between 1973 and 1993 his recorded output could only be described as prodigious, with more than 50 album releases to his name on numerous Pakistani, British, American, European and Japanese labels. Heavily over-recorded, blighted with a rash of poppy remix albums or albums with Westernized instrumentation or arrangements, his recorded work is a mire to suck in the uninitiated and their money. Converts, however, do not escape scot-free. Although some releases hint at their nature with coded titles such as Volume 4 Punjabi (Oriental Star CD SR013) from 1990 or Ghazals Urdu (Oriental Star CD SR055) from 1992, the chosen language and style is frequently a matter of conjecture or uncertainty. While the Western market is saturated with his work, the Indian market is supersaturated, and his recorded output is in danger of overwhelming any sense of taste.
Real World was the label largely responsible for Khan's breakthrough into a non-Indian audience. It was their marketing skills and the platform provided by the WOMAD organization which introduced him to Westerners. Mustt Mustt (Real World CD RW 15) released in 1990 was a deliberate attempt to target the white market with its non-traditional arrangements, yet it seems positively cherubic beside later abominations. "All these albums are experiments," he told me in 1993. "There are some people who do not understand at all but just like my voice. I add new lyrics and modern instruments to attract the audience. This has been very successful." Success, however, bred indifference to the virtues and values of the original music. Many find the remix albums, the Western and youth-market releases, a source of despair: buyer beware remains the watchword. When singing his traditional work he remains peerless. Many fans regret the dilution of his talent that has occurred with his "experiments." However, in 1994, reportedly tired of unauthorized releases, he took greater control of both his business affairs and his concert and recording activities. With his international renown at an all-time peak, Khan died on August 16, 1997; a seemingly endless procession of posthumous releases appeared in the years to follow.
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan (13 October 1948 – 16 August 1997) (Urdu: نصرت فتح علی خان) was a Pakistani musician, primarily a singer of Qawwali, the devotional music of the Sufis. Considered as the greatest voice ever recorded, he possessed an extraordinary range of vocal abilities and could perform at a high level of intensity for several hours. Extending the 600-year old Qawwali tradition of his family, Khan is widely credited with introducing Qawwali music to international audiences. He is popularly known as "Shahenshah-e-Qawwali", meaning "The King of Kings of Qawwali".
Born in Faisalabad, Pakistan, Khan had his first public performance at age of 16, at his father's chelum. He became the head of the family qawwali party in 1971. He was signed by Oriental Star Agencies, Birmingham, England, in the early 1980s. Khan went on to release movie scores and albums in Europe, India, Japan, Pakistan, and the U.S.A. He engaged in collaborations and experiments with Western artists, becoming a well-known world music artist. He toured extensively, performing in over 40 countries."World Music Legends Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan". Globalrhythm.net. Retrieved 16 December 2011. "Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan: National Geographic World Music". Worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com. 17 October 2002. Retrieved 7 November 2012. Ghulam Haider Khan (6 January 2006). "A Tribute By Ustad Ghulam Haider Khan, Friday Times". Thefridaytimes.com. "Guru of Peace:An Introduction to Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan". "Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan". Worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com. 17 October 2002. Retrieved 16 December 2011. Hommage à Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan (liner notes by Pierre-Alain Baud), 1999, Network, Germany. Amit Baruah; R. Padmanabhan (6 September 1997). "The stilled voice". Frontline. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
ContentsBiography1.1 Early life and career1.2 Later career1.3 Death
Early life and career
Khan was born in a Punjabi family, in Faisalabad in 1948, shortly after the Partition of India during which his family moved from their native city of Jallandhar, in East Punjab. He was the fifth child and first son of Fateh Ali Khan, a musicologist, vocalist, instrumentalist, and Qawwal. Khan's family, which included four older sisters and a younger brother, Farrukh Fateh Ali Khan, grew up in central Faisalabad. Initially, his father did not want Khan to follow the family's vocation. He had his heart set on Khan choosing a much more respectable career path and becoming a doctor, because he felt Qawwali artists had low social status. However, Khan showed such an aptitude for, and interest in, Qawwali that his father finally relented.
In 1971, after the death of Mubarak Ali Khan, Khan became the official leader of the family Qawwali party and the party became known as Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Mujahid Mubarak Ali Khan & Party. Khan's first public performance as the leader of the Qawwali party was at a studio recording broadcast as part of an annual music festival organised by Radio Pakistan, known as Jashn-e-Baharan. Khan sang mainly in Urdu and Punjabi and occasionally in Persian, Braj Bhasha and Hindi. His first major hit in Pakistan was the song Haq Ali Ali, which was performed in a traditional style and with traditional instrumentation. The song featured restrained use of Khan's sargam improvisations.
In 1979, Khan married his first cousin, Naheed (the daughter of Fateh Ali Khan's brother, Salamat Ali Khan); they had one daughter, Nida.
In the summer of 1985, Khan performed at the World of Music, Arts and Dance (WOMAD) festival in London. He performed in Paris in 1985 and 1988. He first visited Japan in 1987, at the invitation of the Japan Foundation. He also performed at the 5th Asian Traditional Performing Art Festival in Japan. He also performed at Brooklyn Academy of Music, New York in 1989, earning him admiration from the American audience.
In the 1992–93 academic year, Khan was a Visiting Artist in the Ethnomusicology department at the University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States.
Khan teamed with Peter Gabriel on the soundtrack to The Last Temptation of Christ in 1988, with Canadian musician Michael Brook on the albums Mustt Mustt (1990) and Night Song (1996). The team up with Peter Gabriel gave Khan the opportunity to stylize his songs by blending his qawwalis with the Western music. Khan also grouped with Pearl Jam's lead singer Eddie Vedder in 1995 on two songs for the soundtrack to Dead Man Walking.
Peter Gabriel's Real World label later released five albums of Khan's traditional Qawwali, together with some of his experimental work which included the albums Mustt Mustt and Star Rise. Khan provided vocals for The Prayer Cycle, which was put together by Jonathan Elias, but died before the vocals could be completed. Alanis Morissette was brought in to sing with his unfinished vocals.
His album Intoxicated Spirit was nominated for a Grammy award in 1997 for best traditional folk album. Same year his album Night Song was also nominated for a Grammy Award for Best World Music Album, but lost out to The Chieftains' album Santiago.
Khan contributed songs to, and performed in, several Pakistani films. Shortly before his death, he recorded a song each for two Bollywood films, Aur Pyaar Ho Gaya work with singer Udit Narayan (in which he also sang 'Koi Jane Koi Na Jane' onscreen) and Kachche Dhaage. He sang "Saya bhi saath jab chhod jaye" for Sunny Deol's movie Dillagi. The song was released in 1999, two years after Khan's death. He also sang "Dulhe ka sehra" from Bollywood movie Dhadkan which was released in 2000.
Khan contributed the song "Gurus of Peace" to the album Vande Mataram, composed by A. R. Rahman, and released to celebrate the 50th anniversary of India's independence. Rahman, who was a big fan of Khan could not compose further songs with him. As a tribute, Rahman later released an album titled Gurus of Peace, which featured "Allah Hoo" by Khan. Rahman's 2007 song "Tere Bina" was also composed as a tribute to Khan.
Ustad Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan was taken ill with kidney and liver failure on 11 August 1997 in London, England, while on the way to Los Angeles USA in order to receive a kidney transplant. He died of a sudden cardiac arrest at Cromwell Hospital, London, on Saturday, 16 August 1997, aged 48. His body was repatriated to Faisalabad, Pakistan, and his funeral was a public affair. His wife, Naheed Nusrat passed away on 13 September 2013 in Credit Valley Hospital in Mississauga, Ontario in Canada. Naheed had moved to Canada after the death of her husband. She leaves behind a daughter."Ustad Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan: A tribute, Hindustan Times". "Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Profile on PTV". "Nusrat Fateh Ali KHAN – The 7th Fukuoka Asian Culture Prizes 1996__Arts and Culture Prize". Asianmonth.com. "Chapter 13". Great Muslims of Undivided India. 2009. ISBN 9788178357560. Manheim (2001). Michel Andre Bossy, Thomas Brothers, John C. McEnore, ed. Lives and Legacies: Artists, Writers, and Musicians. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 105. ISBN 978-1573561549. "Official biography, University of Washington". Music.washington.edu. 16 August 1997. Retrieved 16 December 2011. "Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan & Michael Brook: Mustt Mustt & Night Song". Allaboutjazz.com. 5 January 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2011. Moon, Tom (8 January 1997). "Babyface Captures 12 Grammy Nominations He Equaled A Mark Set By Michael Jackson. Awards Will Be Given Out February 26.". The Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia Media Holdings). p. 8. Retrieved 4 February 2011. "Rahman on how the music of Guru was born". The Telegraph. 22 December 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2007. Rose, Cynthia (19 August 1997). "Nusrat's Passing Leaves Void in the Music World". Seattle Times. Retrieved 16 December 2011. http://www.rahatfatehalikhan.co/en_html/html/news/viewnews.php?nid=3
Awards and titles
Khan is widely considered to be the most important qawwal in history. In 1987, Khan received the President of Pakistan’s Award for Pride of Performance for his contribution to Pakistani music. In 1995 he received the UNESCO Music Prize. In 1996 he was awarded Grand Prix des Amériques at Montreal World Film Festival for exceptional contribution to the art of cinema. In the same year, Khan received the Arts and Culture Prize of the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prizes. In 2005, Khan received the "Legends" award at the UK Asian Music Awards. Time magazine's issue of 6 November 2006, "60 Years of Asian Heroes", lists him as one of the top 12 artists and thinkers in the last 60 years. He also appeared on NPR's 50 Great Voices list in 2010. In August 2010 he was included in CNN's list of the twenty most iconic musicians from the past fifty years. In 2008, Khan was listed in 14th position in UGO's list of the best singers of all time.
Many honorary titles were bestowed upon Khan during his 25-year music career. He was given the title of Ustad after performing classical music at a function in Lahore on his father's death anniversary.Ken Hunt. Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan: Biography. AllMusic. Virginia Gorlinski. Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cite error: The named reference washington1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). "Utterance | Rizwan-Muazzam Qawwali". Red-lines.co.uk. Retrieved 16 December 2011. "International Music Council – Prize laureates 1975–2004". Imc-cim.org. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2011. "Previous winners of the UNESCO Music Prize". The Times (London). 18 September 2008. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0002163/awards "Past Laureates | Fukuoka Prize". Asianmonth.com. "Artists unite to celebrate British Asian Music". Retrieved 24 August 2010. Baker, Aryn (13 November 2006). "Asian Heroes: Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan". Time. Retrieved 16 December 2011. Danna, Mychael. "Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan: The Voice Of Pakistan". NPR. Retrieved 16 December 2011. "Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan – Nominated One of the 20 Most Iconic Musicians From The Past 50 Years". Real World Records. 10 August 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2011. "Best Singers of All Time". ugo.com. Retrieved 16 December 2011. Lok Virsa – Ustad Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Qawal & Party, Vol. 1, Moviebox Birmingham Ltd (2007).
Tributes, legacy and influence
Khan is often credited as one of the progenitors of "world music". Widely acclaimed for his spiritual charisma and distinctive exuberance, he was one of the first and most important artists to popularize Qawwali, then considered an "arcane religious tradition", to Western audiences. His powerful vocal presentations, which could last up to 10 hours, brought forth a craze for his music all over Europe. Alexandra A. Seno of Asiaweek wrote:
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan's voice was otherworldly. For 25 years, his mystical songs transfixed millions. It was not long enough ... He performed qawali, which means wise or philosophical utterance, as nobody else of his generation did. His vocal range, talent for improvisation and sheer intensity were unsurpassed.
Jeff Buckley cited Khan as a major influence, saying of him "He's my Elvis", and performing the first few minutes of Khan's hit "Yeh Jo Halka Halka Suroor Hai" (including vocals) at live concerts. Many other artists have also cited Khan as an influence, such as Grammy-nominated Pakistani-American Nadia Ali, Peter Gabriel, A. R. Rahman, Sheila Chandra, and Alim Qasimov. Author and neuroscientist Sam Harris cited Khan as one of his favorite musicians of all time.
Paul Williams picked a concert performance by Khan for inclusion in his 2000 book The 20th Century's Greatest Hits: a 'top-40' list, in which he devotes a chapter each to what he considers the top 40 artistic achievements of the 20th century in any field (including art, movies, music, fiction, non-fiction, science-fiction).
The Derek Trucks Band covers Khan's songs on two of their studio albums. Their 2002 album Joyful Noise includes a cover of "Maki Madni", which features a guest performance by Rahat Fateh Ali Khan, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan's nephew. 2005's Songlines includes a medley of two of Khan's songs, "Sahib Teri Bandi" and "Maki Madni". This medley first appeared on the band's live album Live at Georgia Theatre, which was released in 2004.
In 2004, a tribute band called Brooklyn Qawwali Party (formerly Brook's Qawwali Party) was formed in New York City by percussionist Brook Martinez to perform the music of Khan. The 13-piece group still performs mostly instrumental jazz versions of Khan's qawwalis, using the instruments conventionally associated with jazz rather than those associated with qawwali.
In 2007, electronic music producer and performer Gaudi, after being granted access to back catalogue recordings from Rehmat Gramophone House (Khan's former label in Pakistan), released an album of entirely new songs composed around existing vocals. The album, 'Dub Qawwali', was released by Six Degrees Records. It received huge critical acclaim internationally, reaching no. 2 in the iTunes US Chart, no. 4 in the UK and was the no. 1 seller in Amazon.com’s Electronic Music section for a period. It also earned Gaudi a nomination for the BBC's World Music Awards 2008.Michel-Andre Bossy, Thomas Brothers, John C. McEnroe (2001). Artists, Writers, and Musicians. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 105. Ekbal, Nikhat (2009). Great Muslims of undivided India. Gyan Publishing House. p. 28. Asiaweek: Unforgettable. CNN. Buckley, Jeff. Live at Sin-é (Legacy Edition). Sony Music (2003). "Mojo Pin – Jeff's Dedication to Khan". Liquidgnome.com. Retrieved 10 April 2012. Peter Gabriel, from Genesis to Growing Up. pp. 146–147. A. R. Rahman: Allmusic Sheila Chandra: Allmusic Alim Qasimov: Allmusic Harris, Sam (9 June 2013). "Islam and the Misuses of Ecstasy". samharris.org. Retrieved 19 January 2014. "The 20th Century's Greatest Hits: A Top 40 List of art". Adherents.com. Retrieved 16 December 2011. "The Derek Trucks Band: Allmusic". "bqpmusic.com". Brooklynqawwaliparty.com. Retrieved 16 December 2011. – 12:00. "| BBC Awards for World Music | Nominees". Bbc.co.uk.