Biography All Music GuideWikipedia
All Music Guide:
In a search to find others interested in trading videos of live shows, drummer/singer Bob Nanna, of Friction, placed a classified ad in Maximum Rocknroll and met drummer Roy Ewing, of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, in 1993. That fall, Nanna, a freshman at the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana, started hanging out with Ewing, who played in Lowercase N. Nanna's friend guitarist Pete Havranek, of 42 Loads and Inkadink, wanted to play with someone new, so Ewing volunteered. Nanna became their singer and guitarist, Jay Ryan joined them on bass, and Braid were born. Shortly thereafter, Ryan left the band and went on to play with Hubcap and Dianogah. Todd Bell, who had played with Ewing in Lowercase N, replaced Ryan on bass. Kate Reuss was recruited to sing. Braid played their first show on December 10, 1993, in Danville, Illinois. Reuss left the band after the second show.
After this, Braid went through some drastic changes. Nanna's other band, Friction, broke up for good, which meant that Braid were no longer a side project. Chris Broach joined as singer. Havranek left the band in August 1994, and Broach took over on guitar. A week later Braid recorded the Rainsnowmatch 7", which was released in December 1994 on Enclave Records. Braid's debut album, Frankie Welfare Boy Age 5, was released in June 1995 on Divot Records. In March 1997, Ewing left the band. Damon Atkinson, of Figurehead, joined Braid's spring tour and became the band's drummer. Two years later, in August 1999, Braid disbanded; the posthumous Lucky to Be Alive followed in the spring of 2000.
After the split, members of the band broke off into a number of side projects. Bob Nanna formed the City on Film before eventually reuniting with Todd Bell and Damon Atkinson to create Hey Mercedes. Meanwhile, singer Chris Broach focused on his side project, the Firebird Band, on a full-time basis, and started his own label, Lucid Records. Braid reunited briefly for a one-off summer tour in 2004 before coming back together in a more serious capacity in 2011, when they released an EP, Closer to Closed, on Polyvinyl. Over the next few years, the band played the occasional show, including its landmark 600th gig on December 22, 2011 at the Turner Hall Ballroom in Milwaukee, when the bandmembers announced they would record a new album. The release took several years to come to fruition but was finally finished, titled No Coast, and released in July of 2014 on Top Shelf Records, just in time to coincide with a resurgence of interest in the original wave of emo among young people who had just been born at the time that it came out.
Wikipedia:For other uses, see Braid (disambiguation) and Plait (disambiguation).The braid (1887) by Auguste RenoirTurki bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud of House of Saud with braided hairTewodros II of House of Solomon wearing braided locks
A braid (also referred to as a plait) is a complex structure or pattern formed by interlacing three or more strands of flexible material such as textile fibres, wire, or hair. Compared to the process of weaving a wide sheet of cloth from two separate, perpendicular groups of strands (warp and weft), a braid is usually long and narrow, with each component strand functionally equivalent in zigzagging forward through the overlapping mass of the others.
The simplest possible braid is a flat, solid, three-strand structure in some countries/cases called a plait. More complex braids can be constructed from an arbitrary (but usually odd) number of strands to create a wider range of structures: wider ribbon-like bands, hollow or solid cylindrical cords, or broad mats which resemble a rudimentary perpendicular weave.
Braids have been made for thousands of years and for a variety of uses. For the nomadic peoples of India, North and South America, and the Middle East, large or cumbersome equipment was difficult to carry and so braiding was a practical means of producing useful and decorative textiles. In other areas, such as the Pacific islands (where leaves and grasses are braided) and for many hill tribes, braids are made using minimal equipment. It was only when braiding became a popular occupation in the home or school, as it is in China and Japan, that specific tools were developed to increase production and make it easier to produce more complicated patterns of braids.
Traditionally the materials used in braids have depended on the indigenous plants and animals available in the local area. For instance, South Americans used the very fine and soft threads of the alpaca and llama, while North American people made use of bison fibres. In many other areas vegetable fibres such as grass, nettle and hemp were used. In China, Korea and Japan silk was, and indeed still is, the main material used. In the Americas, the braiding of leather is also widespread.
Early braids had many uses: as costume decoration, animal regalia and camel girths, sword decoration, bowls and hats (from palm leaves) and even as locks (such as those made in Japan to secure precious tea supplies through the use of elaborate knots), and weapons such as slings.
When the industrial revolution arrived, mechanized braiding equipment was invented to increase production. The braiding technique was used to make robes, with both natural and synthetic fibres, coaxial cables for radios using copper wire, etc. and in more recent times, as a covering for fuel pipes in jet aircraft and ships, first using glass fibre, then stainless steel and Kevlar. Pipes for domestic plumbing are often covered with stainless steel braid.
Braids are also used to make rope, decorative objects, and hairstyles (also see pigtails, French braid). Complex braids have been used to create hanging fibre artworks. Braiding is also used to prepare horses' manes and tails for showing, polo and polocrosse."Braid Hairstyles Guide - DIY". Iknowhair.com. Retrieved 2013-11-22. Braiding and Plaiting Your Horse Retrieved 2010-2-20
Prehistory and history
The oldest known reproduction of hair braiding may lie back about 30,000 years: the Venus of Willendorf, now known in academia as the Woman of Willendorf, of a female figurine estimated to have been made between about 28,000 and 25,000 BCE. It is in dispute whether she wears braided hair or some sort of a woven basket. The Venus of Brassempouy is estimated to be about 25,000 years old and shows, ostensibly, a braided hairstyle.
Another sample from different origin was traced back to a burial site called Saqqara located on the Nile river during the first dynasty of Pharaoh Menes.
In some regions, a braid was a means of communication. At a glance one individual could distinguish a wealth of information about another, whether they were married, mourning, or of age for courtship, simply by observing their hairstyle. Certain hairstyles were distinctive to particular tribes or nations. Other styles spoke to an individual’s status in society.
Braiding is traditionally a social art. Because of the time it takes to braid hair, people took time to socialize while braiding and having their hair done. It begins with the elders making simple knots and braids for younger children. Older children watch and learn from them, start practicing on younger children and eventually learn the traditional designs. In the US, you see mothers and grandmothers braiding and putting colorful beads in little children’s hair. This carries on a tradition of bonding between elders and the new generation.Nude Woman (Venus of Willendorf), Smarthistory
Ropes and cables
Braiding creates a composite rope that is thicker and stronger than the non-interlaced strands of yarn. Braided ropes are preferred by arborists, rock climbers and in sport sailing because they do not twist under load, as does an ordinary twisted-strand rope. These ropes consist of one or more concentric tubular braided jackets surrounding either several small twisted fibre cords, or a single untwisted yarn of straight fibres, and are known as Kernmantle ropes.
In electrical and electronic cables, braid is a tubular sheath made of braided strands of metal placed around a central cable for shielding against electromagnetic interference. The braid is grounded while the central conductor(s) carry the signal. The braid may be used in addition to a foil jacket to increase shielding and durability.
Another use is for litz wire which uses braids of thin insulated wires to carry high frequency signals with much lower losses from skin effect or to minimise proximity effect in transformers.
Flat braids made of many copper wires are also sometimes used for flexible electrical connections between large components. The numerous smaller wires comprising the braid are much more resistant to breaking under repeated motion and vibration than is a cable of larger wires. A common example of this may be found connecting a car battery's negative terminal to the metal chassis.
Similar braiding is used on pressurized rubber hoses, such as in plumbing and hydraulic brake systems in automobiles. Braiding is also used for fibres for composite reinforcements.
A property of the basic braid is that removing one strand unlinks the other two, as they are not twisted around each other. Mathematically, a braid with that property is called a Brunnian braid.
Plaiting (or braiding) with kangaroo leather has been a widely practiced tradition in rural Australia since pioneering times. It is used in the production of fine leather belts, hatbands, bridles, dog leads, bullwhips and stockwhips etc. Other leathers are used for the plaiting of heavier products suitable for everyday use.Grant, Bruce, Encyclopedia of Rawhide and Leather Braiding, Cornell Maritime Press, Cambridge, Maryland, 1972. ISBN 0-87033-161-2
Gold braids and silver braids are components or trims of many kinds of formal dress, including military uniform (in epaulettes, aiguillettes, on headgear).
Braids are often used figuratively to represent interweaving or combination, such as in "He braided many different ideas into a new whole."
Braiding happens when a river is carrying vast amounts of eroded sediment. Sediment is deposited as islands in the channel causing the river to split up into many winding channels.
In some river and stream systems, small streams join together and redivide in many places. Such stream systems are said to be braided. These are often found in alluvial fans at the outlet of canyons. This is a result of heavy sediment deposition at high flows followed by re-erosion at low flows. See also river delta.
A coaxial cable with braided copper wire EMI shielding (B)
A gold braid on a police uniform
Braiding hair on Playa de Alcudia, Mallorca, Spain