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Group Members: David Foster
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The early '70s marked the heyday of progressive rock -- it seemed like every time you turned around and everywhere you looked, there were top-flight bands like Yes, King Crimson, ELP, Pink Floyd, the Moody Blues, et al., all around, and their emulators and lesser rivals spreading out as far as the eye could see. Badger was part of that whole scene, a Yes offshoot group that managed to get signed by the same label. Officially, the group's origins go back to 1972 and Tony Kaye's departure from Flash, the group he'd co-founded with his fellow ex-Yes alumni, guitarist Peter Banks. Kaye was a virtuoso who favored more traditional instruments such as the Hammond organ over the more modern Moog synthesizer (not that he didn't play the latter, but he used the organ more prominently), and who had the bad fortune to have been succeeded in Yes by the much flashier Rick Wakeman. This time out, he was going to put together his own progressive rock supergroup, on a firmer footing than Flash (whose work had sometimes strayed too close to that of Yes).
The ex-Yes keyboard player called on his longtime friend David Foster, who had managed to skirt the orbit of Yes several times without ever being asked into that lineup (in part because his instrument was the bass, and Yes was incredibly well covered in that department by Chris Squire). Foster had been a member of the Warriors, Yes lead singer Jon Anderson's mid-'60s group, and had co-authored songs with Anderson on Yes' second album, Time and a Word. Kaye had ended up working with Foster on what was ultimately to be an unreleased Foster album -- when Kaye quit Yes in 1971, he initially joined Banks in founding Flash, but after his exit from the latter, Kaye and Foster decided to finally take the plunge. They recruited drummer Roy Dyke, lately a member of Family and, before that, Ashton, Gardner & Dyke -- he was a Liverpool veteran whose career went back to the early '60s and the Remo 4 and Brian Epstein protégé Tommy Quickly, and had played on one hit single, Ashton, Gardner & Dyke's "Resurrection Shuffle"; he, in turn, steered the organizers to Brian Parrish, an ex-member of Medicine Head and Three Man Army, who had played with Paul Gurvitz and Mike Kellie in an outfit called Parrish & Gurvitz, who'd cut one LP for Regal Zonophone.
The quartet, christened Badger, fit together perfectly, and after some rehearsals began building a name for itself on a European tour opening for Black Sabbath. The band was signed by Atlantic Records, which already had Yes and saw Badger as potentially offering another group of the same caliber. When it came time to record an album, however, it was decided that nothing they tried in the studio was capturing the intensity and involvement they demonstrated on-stage, and that a live album was the best way to introduce Badger. A show at the Rainbow Theatre, opening for a now well-established Yes, was recorded, produced by Jon Anderson and Geoffrey Haslam. One Live Badger did rather better in Europe than it did in America, though it got strong reviews everywhere. Perhaps if it had come out at another time -- and not in the same season that the first wave of progressive rock albums from ELP's Manticore label was being released, with lots of publicity and advertising support -- it might've done better, and a single might've been a help (even Yes had needed "Roundabout" to find a mass audience).
By 1974, Badger was reduced to Kaye and Dyke, who reconstructed the group along somewhat different lines with the addition of Paul Pilnick, late of Stealers Wheel, on lead guitar, Kim Gardner (of Ashton, Gardner & Dyke) on bass, and ex-Apple alumnus Jackie Lomax on vocals. In essence, it became Lomax's group, and he pushed the band away from progressive rock and into soul in a serious way; Badger's second album, White Lady, was made up entirely of songs co-authored by Lomax, and produced in New Orleans at Allen Toussaint's studio. The change in direction would have been difficult enough to pull off under the best of conditions, but stability wasn't one of Badger's long suits at this date -- the group had split up before White Lady was even issued, leaving bewildered fans of both the old sound and new to ponder what had just happened.
Pilnick later returned to the orbit of Stealers Wheel's Joe Egan and Parrish went on to cut a solo album, while Lomax signed with Capitol for two solo albums and Dyke passed through bands behind Pat Travers and jazz veteran Chris Barber. Tony Kaye was a member of Detective and later passed through a re-formed version of Badfinger before re-emerging with Yes in the 1980s, and even got to sing a little on the Union album. Finally, a quarter century after it was recorded, One Live Badger was re-released on CD by Repertoire Records, as part of that label's re-examination of the best progressive rock of the 1970s.
Wikipedia:For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation).
Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels and wolverines. The 11 species of badger are grouped in three subfamilies: Melinae (9 Eurasian badgers), Mellivorinae (the honey badger or ratel) and Taxideinae (the American badger). The Asiatic stink badgers of the genus Mydaus were formerly included within Melinae (and thus Mustelidae), but recent genetic evidence indicates these are actually members of the skunk family, placing them in the taxonomic family Mephitidae.
Badgers include the species in the genera Meles, Arctonyx, Taxidea and Mellivora. Their lower jaws are articulated to the upper by means of transverse condyles firmly locked into long cavities of the skull, so dislocation of the jaw is all but impossible. This enables the badgers to maintain their hold with the utmost tenacity, but limits jaw movement to hinging open and shut, or sliding from side to side without the twisting movement possible for the jaws of most mammals.
Badgers have rather short, fat bodies, with short legs for digging. They have elongated weasel-like heads with small ears. Their tails vary in length depending on species; the stink badger has a very short tail, while the ferret badger's tail can be 46–51 cm (18–20 in) long, depending on age. They have black faces with distinctive white markings, gray bodies with a light-coloured stripe from head to tail, and dark legs with light coloured underbellies. They grow to around 90 centimetres (35 in) in length including tail. The European badger is one of the largest; the American badger, the hog badger and the honey badger are generally a little smaller and lighter. The stink badgers are smaller still, and the ferret badgers are the smallest of all. They weigh around 9.1–11 kg (20–24 lb) on average, with some Eurasian badgers weighing in at around 18 kg (40 lb).Goswami, Anjali and Friscia, Anthony (2010). Carnivoran Evolution: New Views on Phylogeny, Form and Function. Cambridge University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-521-73586-5. "Badger Pages: Photos of and facts about the badgers of the world". Badgers.org.uk. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
The derivation of the word "badger", originally applied to the European badger (Meles meles), is uncertain. It possibly comes from the French word bêcheur (digger). The Oxford English Dictionary states it probably derives from "badge" + -ard, referring to the white mark borne like a badge on its forehead.
The less common name "brock" (Old English: brocc), (Scots: brock) is a Celtic loanword (cf. Gaelic broc and Welsh broch, from Proto-Celtic *brokko) meaning "grey". The Proto-Germanic term was *þahsu- (cf. German Dachs, Dutch das, Norwegian svin-toks; Early Modern English: dasse), probably from the PIE root *tek'- "to construct," so the badger would have been named after its digging of setts (tunnels); the Germanic term *þahsu- became taxus or taxō, -ōnis in Latin glosses, replacing mēlēs ("marten" or "badger"), and from these words the common Romance terms for the animal evolved (Italian tasso, French tesson/taisson/tasson—now blaireau is more common—, Catalan toixó, Spanish tejón, Portuguese texugo).
A male badger is a boar, a female is a sow, and a young badger is a cub. A collective name suggested for a group of badgers is a cete, but badger colonies are more often called clans. A badger's home is called a sett.Neal, Ernest G. and Cheeseman, C. L. (1996) Badgers, p. 2, T. & A.D. Poyser ISBN 0-85661-082-8 Weiner, E. S. C.; Simpson, J. R. (1989). The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861186-2. Retrieved 30 August 2008. Ernout, Alfred; Meillet, Antoine (1979) . Dictionnaire étimologique de la langue latine (in French) (4 ed.). Paris: Klincksieck. Devoto, Giacomo (1989) . Avviamento all'etimologia italiana (in Italian) (6 ed.). Milano: Mondadori. Hints and Things: collective nouns Retrieved 28 June 2010. http://www.snh.org.uk/pdfs/publications/wildlife/badger.pdf
The following list shows where the various species with the common name of badger are placed in the Mustelidae classification. The list is polyphyletic and the species commonly called badgers do not, if the stink badgers are included, form a valid clade.Family MustelidaeSubfamily MelinaeGenus ArctonyxHog badger, Arctonyx collarisGenus MelesJapanese badger, Meles anakumaAsian badger, Meles leucurusEuropean badger, Meles melesGenus Melogale [Some scientists assign this genus to the subfamily Helictidinae]Burmese ferret-badger, Melogale personataJavan ferret-badger, Melogale orientalisChinese ferret-badger, Melogale moschataBornean ferret-badger, Melogale everettiVietnam ferret-badger, Melogale cucphuongensisSubfamily MellivorinaeHoney badger or ratel, Mellivora capensisSubfamily Taxideinae: †Chamitataxus avitus†Pliotaxidea nevadensis†Pliotaxidea garberiAmerican badger, Taxidea taxusSubfamily MustelinaeFamily MephitidaeGenus MydausIndonesian or Sunda stink badger (teledu), Mydaus javanensisPalawan stink badger, Mydaus marchei Koepfli KP, Deere KA, Slater GJ, Begg C, Begg K, Grassman L, Lucherini M, Veron G, Wayne RK (February 2008). "Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: Resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive radiation". BMC Biology : 10. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-10. PMC 2276185. PMID 18275614. Yu L, Peng D, Liu J, Luan P, Liang L, Lee H, Lee M, Ryder OA, Zhang Y (2011). "On the phylogeny of Mustelidae subfamilies: analysis of seventeen nuclear non-coding loci and mitochondrial complete genomes". BMC Evol Biol 11 (1): 92. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-92.
Badgers are found in much of North America, Ireland, Great Britain and most of Europe as far as southern Scandinavia. They live as far east as Japan and China. The Javan ferret-badger lives in Indonesia, and the Bornean ferret-badger lives in Malaysia. The honey badger is found in most of sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Desert, southern Levant, Turkmenistan, and India.Sleeman, D.P., Davenport, J., Cussen. R.E. and Hammond, R.F. (2009). "The small-bodied badgers (Meles meles (L.) of Rutland Island, Co. Donegal". Ir. Nat. J. 30: 1–6. JSTOR 20764515. Brink van den, F.H. (1967). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Britain and Europe. Collins, London. Duckworth, J.W. & Brickle, N.W. (2008). Melogale orientalis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 21 March 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of data deficient
The behavior of badgers differs by family, but all shelter underground, living in burrows called setts, which may be very extensive. Some are solitary, moving from home to home, while others are known to form clans called cetes. Cete size is variable from two to fifteen.
Badgers can run or gallop at 25–30 km/h (16–19 mph) for short periods of time.
Badgers are nocturnal.
In North America, coyotes sometimes eat badgers and vice versa, but the majority of their interactions seem to be mutual or neutral. American badgers and coyotes have been seen hunting together in a cooperative fashion."Badger". Kansas University. Ksr.ku.edu. Retrieved 26 August 2012. Kiliaan HPL, Mamo C, Paquet PC (1991). "A Coyote, Canis latrans, and Badger, Taxidea taxus, interaction near Cypress Hills Provincial Park, Alberta". Canadian Field Naturalist 105: 122–12. Cahalane VH (1950). "Badger-coyote "partnerships"". Journal of Mammalogy 31: 354–355.
The diet of the Eurasian badger consists largely of earthworms, insects, grubs, and the eggs and young of ground-nesting birds. They also eat small mammals, amphibians, reptiles and birds, as well as roots and fruit. In Britain, they are the main predator of hedgehogs, which have demonstrably lower populations in areas where badgers are numerous, so that hedgehog rescue societies will not release hedgehogs into known badger territories. In some areas they are known to predate lambs, and may bite a ewe defending her lamb, almost always leading to infection of the bite. They are occasional predators of domestic chickens, and are able to break into enclosures that a fox cannot. In southern Spain, badgers feed to a significant degree on rabbits. The honey badger of Africa consumes honey, porcupines and even venomous snakes (such as the puff adder); they will climb trees to gain access to honey from bees' nests. American badgers are fossorial carnivores – i.e. they catch a significant proportion of their food underground, by digging. They can tunnel after ground-dwelling rodents at speed.
Badgers have been known to become intoxicated with alcohol after eating rotting fruit."Eurasian badger (Meles meles) ecology: DIET". Woodchester Park Badger Research. Central Science Laboratory. csl.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2008. "The value of agri-environment schemes for macro-invertebrate feeders: hedgehogs on arable farms in Britain". doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2010.00359.x. Badger predation of hedgehogs was high in the study site and the main cause of death "badgers and hogs don’t mix we’d never consider releasing hogs into ... an active badger territory". Snufflelodge.org.uk. Retrieved 27 August 2013. "Forums". River Cottage. Retrieved 27 August 2013. Fedriani, J.M., Ferreras, P. & Delibes, M. (1998). "Dietary response of the Eurasian badger, Meles meles, to a decline of its main prey in the Doñana National Park". Journal of Zoology 245 (2): 214–218. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1998.tb00092.x. AFP: Drunk badger blocks German road. Google.com (8 July 2009). Retrieved on 7 November 2011.
ContentsRelation with humans1.1 Sport1.2 Culling1.3 Pets1.4 Commercial use1.5 Food
§Relation with humans
Hunting badgers has been common in many countries. The Dachshund dog breed was bred as a badger hound; Dachs is the German word for badger.
The blood sport of badger-baiting was outlawed in the United Kingdom by the Cruelty to Animals Act 1835, and the Protection of Badgers Act 1992 made it a serious offence to kill, injure or take a badger, or to damage or interfere with a sett unless a licence is obtained from a statutory authority. An exemption that allowed fox hunters to loosely block setts to prevent chased foxes escaping into them was brought to an end with the Hunting Act 2004.
§CullingFor more details on Badgers and bovine tuberculosis, see Eurasian badger.
Controlling the badger population is prohibited in many European countries, as badgers are listed in the Berne Convention, but they are not otherwise the subject of any international treaty or legislation. Many badgers in Europe were gassed during the 1960s and 1970s to control rabies.
Until the 1980s, badger culling in the United Kingdom was undertaken in the form of gassing, to control the spread of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Limited culling resumed in 1998 as part of a 10-year randomised trial cull which was considered by John Krebs and others to show that culling was ineffective. Some groups called for a selective cull, while others favoured a programme of vaccination. Wales and Northern Ireland are currently (2013) conducting field trials of a badger vaccination programme. In 2012, the government authorised a limited cull led by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, however, this was later deferred with a wide range of reasons given. In August 2013, a full culling programme began where it is expected about 5,000 badgers will be killed over six weeks in West Somerset and Gloucestershire by marksmen with high-velocity rifles using a mixture of controlled shooting and free shooting (some badgers will be trapped in cages first). The cull has caused many protests with emotional, economic and scientific reasons being cited. The badger is considered an iconic species of the British countryside, it has been claimed by shadow ministers that "The government's own figures show it will cost more than it saves...", and Lord Krebs, who led the Randomised Badger Culling Trial in the 1990s, said the two pilots "will not yield any useful information".
Badgers can be fierce animals and will protect themselves and their young at all costs, are capable of fighting off dog-packs and fighting off much larger animals, such as wolves and bears. However, badgers can be tamed and then kept as pets.
Today, badgers are commercially trapped for their pelts, which are used to make shaving brushes and clothing. Badger hair is particularly suited for shaving brushes due to its water retention. Virtually all commercial badger hair comes from mainland China, which supplies knots of hair in three grades to brush makers in both China and Europe. In rural Northern China, badgers multiplied to the point of becoming a crop nuisance, and village cooperatives are licensed by the national government to hunt badgers and process their hair. The hair is also used for paint brushes, and was used as a trim on Native American garments. It has been used in some instances as doll hair.
Although rarely eaten today in the United States or the United Kingdom, badgers were once a primary meat source for the diets of Native Americans and white colonists. Badgers were also eaten in Britain during World War II and the 1950s.
In Russia, the consumption of badger meat is still widespread. Shish kebabs made from badger, along with dog meat and pork, are a major source of trichinosis outbreaks in the Altai region of Russia. In Croatia, badger meat is rarely eaten. When it is, it is usually smoked and dried or, less commonly, served in goulash.
In France, badger meat was used in the preparation of several dishes, such as Blaireau au sang, and it was a relatively common ingredient in countryside cuisine. Badger meat was eaten in some parts of Spain until recently. In Japan, badger is regarded in folktales as a food for the humble.The European badger (Meles meles). badger.org.uk Badger cull is necessary to stop them suffering, say vets. The Times (27 April 2013). Retrieved on 2 September 2013. "Badger cull begins in Somerset in attempt to tackle TB". BBC. 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Carrington, D. (14 December 2011). "Badger culling will go ahead in 2012". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Carrington, D. (23 October 2012). "Badger cull postponed until 2013". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Hubbard, Fran (1985). Animal Friends of the Southwest. USA: Awani Press. p. 29. ISBN 0-915266-07-5. "Bristle Styles and Additional Information". Em's Place. Retrieved 25 May 2013. "ADW: Taxidea taxus: Information". Animal Diversity Web. Archived from the original on 23 September 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008. "Wonderland: The Man Who Eats Badgers and Other Strange Tales – TV pick of the day for January 23rd, 2008". Library.digiguide.com. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2009. "Primary Source documents". Bcheritage.ca. Retrieved 25 April 2009. "How To Bake A Badger". Globalchefs.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2010. "Summary of Trichinellosis Outbreaks (2001–2004)". Trichinella.org. Retrieved 25 April 2009. "MESO: The first Croatian meat journal, Vol.VII No.1 February 2005". Hrcak. 1 February 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2009. Florijančić, Tihomir; Marinculić, Albert; Antunović, Boris and Bošković, Ivica (2006). "A survey of the current status of sylvatic trichinellosis in the Republic of Croatia". Veterinarski Arhiv 76 (7): S1–S8. "Summary of Trichinellosis Outbreaks (2001–2005) – Russia". www.trichinella.org. Retrieved 11 October 2008. "Sweet delicacy from hunter's kitchen – badger (Melles melles L.) Abstract". Portal of scientific journals of Croatia. Retrieved 11 October 2008. Molinier, Annie; Molinier, Jean-Claude; d'Hauterives, Benoît Lumeau. (2004). Les cuisines oubliées. Illinois: Editions Sud Ouest. ISBN 978-2-87901-549-1. "Badgers in Spain". IberiaNature. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2008. Radin, Paul (1946). "Folktales of Japan as Told in California". The Journal of American Folklore 59 (233): 289–308. doi:10.2307/536252. JSTOR 536252.
§Popular cultureMain article: List of fictional badgers
In medieval times, badgers were thought to work together to dig holes under mountains. They were said to lie down at the entrance of the hole holding a stick in their mouths, while other badgers piled dirt on their bellies. Two badgers would then take hold of the stick in the badger’s mouth, and drag the animal loaded with dirt away, almost in the fashion of a wagon. Badger characters are featured in author Brian Jacques' Redwall series, most often falling under the title of Badger Lord or Badger Mother, and the 19th century poem "The Badger" by John Clare describes a badger hunt and badger-baiting. The character Frances in Russell Hoban's children's books is depicted as a badger. A badger god is featured in The Immortals by Tamora Pierce and "The Badger" is a comic book hero created by Mike Baron. The badger is the emblem of the Hufflepuff house of the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry in the J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter Book series, it is chosen as such because the badger is an animal that is often underestimated, because it lives quietly until attacked, but which, when provoked, can fight off animals much larger than itself, which resembles the Hufflepuff house in several ways. Trufflehunter is a heroic badger in the Chronicles of Narnia book Prince Caspian by C. S. Lewis. In Lafcadio Hearn's book Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things there is a short story titled Mujina, which is a shapeshifting badger.
Many other stories featuring badgers as characters include Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Mr. Tod (Tommy Brock), the Rupert Bear adventures by Mary Tourtel, Kenneth Grahame's The Wind in the Willows, T. H. White's The Once and Future King and The Book of Merlyn, Fantastic Mr. Fox by Roald Dahl, Colin Dann's The Animals of Farthing Wood, Richard Adams's Watership Down and Erin Hunter's Warriors. In Incident at Hawk's Hill by Allan W. Eckert a badger is one of the main characters.
Badgers are also featured in films and animations: a flash video of "The Badger Song" shows a group doing calisthenics; in Pokémon, Typhlosion and Linoone are based on badgers. Walt Disney's 1973 film Robin Hood, depicts the character of Friar Tuck as a badger. In the Doctor Snuggles series, Dennis the handyman, was a badger.
In Europe, badgers were traditionally used to predict the length of winter. The badger is the state animal of the U.S. state of Wisconsin and Bucky Badger is the mascot of the athletic teams at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The badger is also the official mascot of Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada, as well as that of St Aidan's College at the University of Durham.
In 2007, the appearance of honey badgers around the British base at Basra, Iraq, fueled rumors among the locals that British forces deliberately released "man-eating" and "bear-like" badgers to spread panic. These allegations were denied by the British army and the director of Basra's veterinary hospital.
The viral video Crazy Nastyass Honey Badger became popular in 2011, attaining over 68 million views on YouTube as of July 2014. The video features footage from the Nat Geo WILD network of honey badgers fighting jackals, invading beehives, and eating cobras, with a voiceover added by the uploader, "Randall".
On 28 August 2013 the PC video game Shelter was released by developers Might and Delight in which players control a mother badger protecting her cubs."Medieval Bestiary : Badger". bestiary.ca. Yoder, Don, Groundhog Day. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2003 ISBN 0-8117-0029-1 EEK! – Critter Corner – The Badger. Dnr.wi.gov. Retrieved on 7 November 2011. "British blamed for Basra badgers". BBC News. 12 July 2007. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 12 July 2007. Ellison, Cara (26 July 2013). "Hands On: Shelter". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
Sleeman, D.P., Collins, D.M. and Davenport, J. 2014. Where and when badger (Meles meles) road casualties occurred in the Four Area Study. Ir. Nat. J. 33: 119 – 123.