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Danceable post-punk band The Fashion made a big splash in their native Denmark with their 2003 debut album, but the core members of the group -- singer Jakob "Plastic Kid" Printzlau, guitarist Anders Find Axelsen, and bassist Christian Lignell Bækholm -- had been playing together since 1995. All three hail from the town of Svendborg, and their joint musical ventures had ranged from industrial metal group Faceplant to the punky Joyphilter. Despite developing a strong fan base in that latter incarnation, they decided to start again from scratch after the departure of Joyphilter's drummer, drafting in Jakob Ankaer Johansen on drums and Christoffer Griebel on keyboards. A three-song 3" CD on the indie label North Post led to the newly formed group signing with BMG, who released their debut full-length as the Fashion, 2003's Rock Rock Kiss Kiss Combo. The upbeat singles "Let's Go Dancing" and "Roller Disco Inferno" blended the spiky guitar rock of the internationally burgeoning dance-punk trend with a particular sprightly sense of fun comparable to fellow Danes Junior Senior. Despite some success across Europe and attention from MTV and Rolling Stone, they took an extended break from touring and recording, during which members of the group went back to school, started families, and honed their songwriting. Now a four-piece (keyboardist Griebel had departed shortly after the release of their debut), the band returned in 2007 with a slightly harder-edged self-titled sophomore album, including the poppy singles "Like Knives," "Solo Impala," and "Letters from the Ambulance." The Fashion was slated for a 2008 release in many countries, including the U.S., and the group planned an extensive international tour to correspond.
Fashion is a general term for a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body piercing, or furniture. Fashion refers to a distinctive and often habitual trend in the style with which a person dresses, as well as to prevailing styles in behaviour. Fashion also refers to the newest creations of textile designers. The more technical term, costume, has become so linked to the term "fashion" that the use of the former has been relegated to special senses like fancy dress or masquerade wear, while "fashion" means clothing more generally and the study of it. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous.
Clothing fashions 
Early Western travelers, whether to Persia, Turkey, India, or China frequently remark on the absence of changes in fashion there, and observers from these other cultures comment on the unseemly pace of Western fashion, which many felt suggested an instability and lack of order in Western culture. The Japanese Shogun's secretary boasted (not completely accurately) to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years. However in Ming China, for example, there is considerable evidence for rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing. Changes in costume often took place at times of economic or social change (such as in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate), but then a long period without major changes followed. This occurred in Moorish Spain from the 8th century, when the famous musician Ziryab introduced sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashion from his native Baghdad and his own inspiration to Córdoba in Al-Andalus. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the Middle East from the 11th century, following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East.
The beginnings of the habit in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated to the middle of the 14th century, to which historians including James Laver and Fernand Braudel date the start of Western fashion in clothing. The most dramatic manifestation was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment, from calf-length to barely covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing on the chest to look bigger. This created the distinctive Western male outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers.
The pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and men's fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex and changing. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion in dating images with increasing confidence and precision, often within five years in the case of 15th century images. Initially changes in fashion led to a fragmentation of what had previously been very similar styles of dressing across the upper classes of Europe, and the development of distinctive national styles. These remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, mostly originating from Ancien Régime France. Though the rich usually led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasants following trends at a distance sometimes uncomfortably close for the elites—a factor Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion.Albrecht Dürer's drawing contrasts a well turned out bourgeoise from Nuremberg (left) with her counterpart from Venice. The Venetian lady's high chopines make her look taller.
Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, and at this period national differences were at their most pronounced, as Albrecht Dürer recorded in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century (illustration, right). The "Spanish style" of the end of the century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, and after a struggle in the mid 17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century.
Though colors and patterns of textiles changed from year to year, the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut changed more slowly. Men's fashions largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette are galvanized in theaters of European war, where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles: an example is the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie.Marie Antoinette, wife of Louis XVI, leader of fashion
The pace of change picked up in the 1780s with the increased publication of French engravings that showed the latest Paris styles; though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France as patterns since the 16th century, and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion from the 1620s. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike (or thought they were): local variation became first a sign of provincial culture, and then a badge of the conservative peasant.
Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations before, and the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design is normally taken to date from 1858, when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris. The Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. They have to adhere to standards such as: keeping at least 20 employees engaged in making the clothes, showing two collections per year at fashion shows, and presenting a certain number of patterns to costumers. Since then the professional designer has become a progressively more dominant figure, despite the origins of many fashions in street fashion. For women the flapper styles of the 1920s marked the most major alteration in styles for several centuries, with a drastic shortening of skirt lengths and much looser-fitting clothes; with occasional revivals of long skirts, variations of the shorter length have remained dominant ever since. Flappers also wore cloches, which were snug fitting and covered the forehead. Her shoes had a heel and some sort of buckle. The most important part was the jewelry, such as: earrings and necklaces that had diamonds or gems. The flapper gave a particular image as being seductive due to her short length dress, which was form fitting, and the large amounts of rich jewelery around her neck.
The four major current fashion capitals are acknowledged to be Paris, Milan, New York City, and London, which are all headquarters to the greatest fashion companies and are renowned for their major influence on global fashion. Fashion weeks are held in these cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences. A succession of major designers such as Coco Chanel and Yves Saint-Laurent have kept Paris as the center most watched by the rest of the world, although haute couture is now subsidized by the sale of ready to wear collections and perfume using the same branding.
Modern Westerners have a wide number of choices available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect that person's personality or interests. When people who have cultural status start to wear new or different clothes, a fashion trend may start. People who like or respect them become influenced by their personal style, and begin wearing clothes of similar styling. Fashions may vary considerably within a society according to age, social class, generation, occupation, and geography as well as over time. If, for example, an older person dresses according to the fashion of young people, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both young and older people. The terms fashionista and fashion victim refer to someone who slavishly follows current fashions.
One can regard the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion. (Compare some of the work of Roland Barthes.)
In recent years, Asian fashion has become increasingly significant in local and global markets. Countries such as China, Japan, India, and Pakistan have traditionally had large textile industries, which have often been drawn upon by Western designers, but now Asian clothing styles are also gaining influence based on their own ideas.
Fashion industry 
The fashion industry is a product of the modern age. Prior to the mid-19th century, most clothing was custom made. It was handmade for individuals, either as home production or on order from dressmakers and tailors. By the beginning of the 20th century—with the rise of new technologies such as the sewing machine, the rise of global capitalism and the development of the factory system of production, and the proliferation of retail outlets such as department stores—clothing had increasingly come to be mass-produced in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices. Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, today it is an international and highly globalized industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold world-wide. For example, an American fashion company might source fabric in China and have the clothes manufactured in Vietnam, finished in Italy, and shipped to a warehouse in the United States for distribution to retail outlets internationally. The fashion industry has long been one of the largest employers in the United States, and it remains so in the 21st century. However, employment declined considerably as production increasingly moved overseas, especially to China. Because data on the fashion industry typically are reported for national economies and expressed in terms of the industry’s many separate sectors, aggregate figures for world production of textiles and clothing are difficult to obtain. However, by any measure, the industry accounts for a significant share of world economic output.
The fashion industry consists of four levels: the production of raw materials, principally fibers and textiles but also leather and fur; the production of fashion goods by designers, manufacturers, contractors, and others; retail sales; and various forms of advertising and promotion. These levels consist of many separate but interdependent sectors, all of which are devoted to the goal of satisfying consumer demand for apparel under conditions that enable participants in the industry to operate at a profit.
The media plays a very significant role when it comes to fashion. For instance, an important part of fashion is fashion journalism. Editorial critique, guidelines and commentary can be found in magazines, newspapers, on television, fashion websites, social networks and in fashion blogs. In the recent years, fashion blogging and YouTube videos have become a major outlet for spreading trends and fashion tips. Through these media outlets, readers and viewers all over the world can learn about fashion, making it very accessible.
At the beginning of the 20th century, fashion magazines began to include photographs of various fashion designs and became even more influential on people than in the past. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public clothing taste. Talented illustrators drew exquisite fashion plates for the publications which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years).
Vogue, founded in the United States in 1892, has been the longest-lasting and most successful of the hundreds of fashion magazines that have come and gone. Increasing affluence after World War II and, most importantly, the advent of cheap color printing in the 1960s led to a huge boost in its sales, and heavy coverage of fashion in mainstream women's magazines—followed by men's magazines from the 1990s. One such example of Vogue's popularity is the younger version, Teen Vogue, which provides clothing and trends that are more targeted toward the "fashionista on a budget". Haute couture designers followed the trend by starting the ready-to-wear and perfume lines, heavily advertised in the magazines, that now dwarf their original couture businesses. Television coverage began in the 1950s with small fashion features. In the 1960s and 1970s, fashion segments on various entertainment shows became more frequent, and by the 1980s, dedicated fashion shows such as Fashion-television started to appear. FashionTV was the pioneer in this undertaking and has since grown to become the leader in both Fashion Television and New Media Channels compared to other Fashion Magazines. Despite television and increasing internet coverage, including fashion blogs, press coverage remains the most important form of publicity in the eyes of the fashion industry.
However, over the past several years, fashion websites have developed that merge traditional editorial writing with user-generated content. Online magazines like iFashion Network, and Runway Magazine, led by Nole Marin from America's Next Top Model, have begun to dominate the market with digital copies for computers, iPhones, and iPads. Example platforms include Apple and Android for such applications.
A few days after the 2010 Fall Fashion Week in New York City came to a close, The New Islander's Fashion Editor, Genevieve Tax, criticized the fashion industry for running on a seasonal schedule of its own, largely at the expense of real-world consumers. "Because designers release their fall collections in the spring and their spring collections in the fall, fashion magazines such as Vogue always and only look forward to the upcoming season, promoting parkas come September while issuing reviews on shorts in January", she writes. "Savvy shoppers, consequently, have been conditioned to be extremely, perhaps impractically, farsighted with their buying."
Ethnic Fashion is defined as the Fashion of Multicultural groups such as African-American, Hispanics, Asians, etc. Examples of ethnic designers are FUBU, Baby Phat, Phat Farm, Sean John, Etc. It is estimated that Ethnic Fashion has contributed over $25 billion in revenues, thus making them an important part of the fashion industry.
Anthropological perspective 
Anthropology, the study of culture and human societies, studies fashion by questioning why a certain styles are deemed socially appropriate and others not. A certain way is chosen and that becomes the fashion as defined by a certain people as a whole, so if a particular style has a meaning in an already occurring set of beliefs that style will become fashion. According to Ted Polhemus, and Lynn Procter, fashion can be described in terms of adornment of which there are two types: fashion and anti-fashion. Through the capitalization and commoditisation of clothing, accessories, and shoes etc. what constituted anti-fashion has now become part of fashion as the lines between fashion and anti-fashion are being blurred.
The definition of fashion and anti-fashion is as thus. Anti-fashion is fixed and changes little overtime. Anti-fashion is different depending on which cultural or social group one is associated with or where one lives but within that group or locality the style changes little and stays constant. Fashion is the exact opposite of anti-fashion. Fashion changes very quickly and is not affiliated with one group or an area of the world but is spread out throughout the world wherever people can communicate easily with each other. For example, the 1953 Queen Elizabeth II’s coronation gown is an example of anti-fashion because it is traditional and does not change over any period; whereas, a gown from fashion designer Dior’s collection of 1953 is fashion because it will change every season as Dior comes up with a new gown to replace the old one. In the Dior gown the length, cut, fabric, and embroidery of the gown changes for season to season and does not stay the same. Anti-fashion is concerned with maintaining the status quo while fashion is concerned with social mobility. Time is expressed in terms of continuity in anti-fashion and as change in fashion. Fashion has changing modes of adornment while anti-fashion has fixed modes of adornment. Indigenous and peasant modes of adornment are an example of anti-fashion. Change in fashion is part of the larger system and is structured to be a deliberate change in style.
In today’s society people in rich countries are linked to people in poor countries through the commoditisation and consumption of what can be called fashion. In one area of the globe people are working long hours to produce things that people in another part of the globe are anxious to consume. The chain of production and consumption of Nike shoes is an example of this. The Nike shoes are produced in Taiwan and consumed in North America. In the production end there is the nation building a hard working ideology that leads people to produce and entices people to consume with a vast amount of goods for the offering. Commodities are no longer just utilitarian but are fashionable, be they running shoes or sweat suits.
The change from anti-fashion to fashion because of the influence of western capitalist civilization can be best seen in eastern Indonesia. The ikat textiles of the Ngada area of eastern Indonesia are changing because of modernization and development happening in that area. Traditionally in the Ngada area there was no idea similar to that of the Western idea of fashion. But anti-fashion in the form of traditional textiles and ways to adorn oneself were widely popular. Textiles in Indonesia have played many roles for the local people. Textiles defined a person’s rank and status and indicated being part of the ruling class. People expressed their ethnic identity and social hierarchy through textiles in Indonesia. The ikat textiles were also bartered for food by some people of Indonesia thus being considered economic goods. Textiles took on many different forms in the social custom and religion of the Indonesian people. Textiles were also a way to communicate religious messages as some motifs had spiritual religious meanings according to the local culture.
In eastern Indonesia there has been a transformation in the production and use of the traditional textiles as the production, use and value associated to textiles changes due to modernization. In the past women produced the textiles for either consuming the textiles by themselves and their families or to trade with others. Today this has changed as most textiles are not being produced at home. Because of colonialism in the past by the Dutch, western goods are considered modern and valued more than traditional goods. Because of this western clothing is valued more than the traditional sarong. Sarongs are now used only for rituals and ceremonial occasions; whereas, western clothes are worn to church or visiting a government office. Civil servants in the town are more likely to make this distinction between western and traditional clothes more than peasants. Upon Indonesia’s independence from the Dutch people increasingly started buying factory made shirts and sarongs. In textile producing areas the growing of cotton and production of naturally coloured thread became obsolete. Traditional motifs on textiles are no longer considered the property of a certain social class or age group. Wives of government officials are promoting the use of traditional textiles in the form of western garments, such as skirts, vests, blouses etc. This trend is also being followed by the general populace and whoever can afford to hire a tailor is doing so to stitch traditional ikat textiles into western clothes. Thus traditional textiles are now fashion goods and no longer confined to the black, white and brown colour palette, coming in array of colours. Handbags, wallets and other accessories are also being made from traditional textiles, and traditional textiles are also being used in interior decorations. These items are considered fashionable by civil servants and their families. There is also a booming tourist trade in the Kupang city of eastern Indonesia where international as well as domestic tourists want to get their hands on traditionally printed western goods.
The use of traditional textiles for fashion is becoming a big business in eastern Indonesia, but these traditional textiles are losing their ethnic identity markers and are being used as an item of fashion. Just like the Nike shoes that are a capitalist form of fashion for the modern consumer, the ikat textiles of Eastern Indonesia’s Ngada area, which use to be a form of static anti-fashion, are becoming a part of fashion as they are being incorporated into forms of highly valued western goods.
Intellectual property 
Within the fashion industry, intellectual property is not enforced as it is within the film industry and music industry. Robert Glariston, intellectual property expert at Creative Business House ( organization specializing in fashion and trademarking), mentions in a fashion seminar held in LA that "Copyright law regarding clothing is a current hot-button issue in the industry. We often have to draw the line between designers being inspired by a design and those outright stealing it in different places." To "take inspiration" from others' designs contributes to the fashion industry's ability to establish clothing trends. For the past few years, WGSN has been a dominant source of fashion news and forecasts in steering fashion brands worldwide to be "inspired" by one another. Enticing consumers to buy clothing by establishing new trends is, some have argued, a key component of the industry's success. Intellectual property rules that interfere with the process of trend-making would, in this view, be counter-productive. On the other hand, it is often argued that the blatant theft of new ideas, unique designs, and design details by larger companies is what often contributes to the failure of many smaller or independent design companies.
Since fakes are distinguishable by their inherent poorer quality, there is still a demand for luxury goods. And as only a trademark or logo can be copyrighted for clothing and accessories, many fashion brands make this one of the most visible aspects of the garment or accessory. In handbags, especially, the designer's brand may be woven into the fabric (or the lining fabric) from which the bag is made — this makes the brand an intrinsic element of the bag.
In 2005, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) held a conference calling for stricter intellectual property enforcement within the fashion industry to better protect small and medium businesses and promote competitiveness within the textile and clothing industries.
Fashion for a cause 
Fashion may be used to promote a cause, for example, to promote healthy behavior, to raise money for a cancer cure, to raise money for local charities, for example the Juvenile Protective Association, or to raise donations for a children's hospice.
One up and coming fashion cause is trashion which is using trash to make clothes, jewelery, and other fashion items in order to promote awareness of pollution. There are any number of modern trashion artists such as Marina DeBris, Ann Wizer, and Nancy Judd.