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By pitching their music somewhere between the arena-friendly style of U2 and the mature pop/rock of bands like Maroon 5 and Counting Crows, the Fray rose to commercial prominence with their 2005 debut, How to Save a Life. The Denver-based band had formed three years prior, when former schoolmates Isaac Slade (vocals, piano) and Joe King (guitar, vocals) unexpectedly bumped into each other at a local music store. The pair began a series of two-man jam sessions and soon expanded their lineup with two of Slade's former bandmates, drummer Ben Wysocki and guitarist David Welsh. Slade's younger brother, Caleb, also joined the band for a stint but was ultimately asked to leave; the resulting rift between the two siblings would later inspire the band's first hit single, "Over My Head (Cable Car)." After issuing the Movement EP in 2002, the quartet gained the support of Denver's KTCL radio station with a follow-up release, 2003's Reason EP. As the Fray's airplay increased alongside their local profile (Westword, a Denver alternative weekly publication, deemed them Best New Band in 2004), they began attracting attention from Epic Records. The label ultimately signed the band in December 2004, and the Fray toured alongside Weezer and Ben Folds the following summer.
How to Save a Life was released in September 2005, and "Over My Head (Cable Car)" found a quick home on modern rock radio. By early 2006, it had crossed over to Top 40 chart status, peaking at number eight and whetting the public's appetite for another hit. The Fray responded by releasing the album's title track, which was heavily used in a promotional campaign for the TV series Grey's Anatomy and quickly became one of 2006's biggest singles. "How to Save a Life" was a worldwide smash, reaching the Top Ten in the U.S. (where it continued to chart for 58 consecutive weeks) and peaking at number one in Bulgaria, Ireland, Canada, and Spain. By the time the smoke had cleared, the Fray's debut had been certified double-platinum in the U.S. and was declared the best-selling digital album of all time.
As How to Save a Life continued to enjoy worldwide chart success, the live album Live at the Electric Factory was released in selected independent stores in July 2006. The Fray re-released their Reason EP the following year while continuing to tour, occasionally playing new material at their high-profile shows. The band also found time to return to the recording studio, and 2009 saw the release of their self-titled sophomore effort, The Fray. The Frays third studio outing was produced by Brendan O'Brien and was inspired by the group's trips to Rwanda and Germany. The resulting Scars and Stories, which was named after an unused B-side, was preceded by the single "Heartbeat" and released on February 7, 2012. At the end of the year frontman Isaac Slade confirmed the band was starting work on its fourth record in 2013, and the Fray subsequently headed into the studio with producer Stuart Price (the Killers, Madonna, Keane). Titled Helios, the album was issued in February 2014 and was preceded by the upbeat single "Love Don't Die."
Wikipedia:For other uses, see Fray (disambiguation).
The Fray is an American rock band from Denver, Colorado. Formed in 2002 by schoolmates Isaac Slade and Joe King, they achieved success with the release of their debut album, How to Save a Life in 2005, which was certified double platinum by the RIAA and platinum in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the UK. The Fray achieved national success with their first single, "Over My Head (Cable Car)", which became a top ten hit in the United States. The release of their second single, "How to Save a Life", brought the band worldwide fame. The song charted in the top three of the Billboard Hot 100 and was a top 5 single in Australia, Canada, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
The group's self-titled, second album, released in 2009, debuted at number-one on the Billboard charts and was certified gold in the United States, Australia and Canada. It was also nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album in 2010. While both the albums were commercially successful, critical reception was mixed. The Fray was ranked No. 84 on Billboard 's "Artists of the Decade" list. Their third album Scars & Stories, released in 2012, achieved moderate commercial success; debuting and peaking at number four on the Billboard 200. The album again received mixed reviews from critics. The band's fourth and latest album, Helios, was released in February 2014.
The Fray's use of the piano as the lead instrument in their music has led critics to compare the band with English piano-driven bands such as Coldplay and Keane. However, the band lists its influences as the Wallflowers, Counting Crows, Better Than Ezra and U2.Daniel Kreps. "On the Charts: Springsteen Slips to Second as the Fray Lock Up Number One : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily". RollingStone.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010. "Nominees". GRAMMY.com. Retrieved 2010-01-02. "Artists of the Decade". Billboard.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010. Hoard, Christian. "The Fray". RollingStone.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010. Sendra, Tim. "How to Save a Life". AllMusic. Retrieved February 13, 2010. Oliver, Nic. "The Fray – The Fray". MusicOMH.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010. "The Fray Biography". TheTabWorld.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
ContentsHistory1.1 Formation and early years (2002–2004)1.2 How to Save a Life (2005–2007)1.3 The Fray (2008–2010)1.4 Christmas EP (2009–2010)1.5 Scars and Stories (2011–2012)1.6 Helios (2013–present)
Formation and early years (2002–2004)
The band members' lives were largely formed in Denver churches where they helped lead worship, and in the Christian school three of them attended. Slade, 24, and guitarist Joe King, 25, were several years ahead of drummer Ben Wysocki, 21, at Faith Christian Academy. Wysocki and guitarist David Welsh, 27, played in the same worship band. In the spring of 2002, former schoolmates Isaac Slade and Joe King reconnected and began regular two-man jam sessions that led to writing songs. Isaac and Joe later added Zach Johnson on drums and Slade's younger brother Caleb on bass, though Caleb was later asked to leave. Caleb's departure from the band caused a rift in his relationship with Isaac and this rift later became the inspiration for the song "Over My Head (Cable Car)", which is about the brothers' wanting relationship. Following this Johnson left the band as well to attend an art school in New York.
Ben Wysocki, a former bandmate of Isaac Slade, joined as drummer and later, Dave Welsh, who was another former band mate of Slade and Wysocki, was added as lead guitarist to the band. The newly formed band was named the Fray. The band members decided on a name after asking people to put band names on a piece of paper from which they picked randomly. The members of the band first claimed that they found the name suitable because they frequently quarreled about the composition of the lyrics in their songs, but they have since stated they are usually on good terms while composing music and acknowledges contributions from all of its members. The band has had no permanent bassist since Caleb, instead employing touring bassists on a temporary basis. The current bassist is Jeremy McCoy, who has been with the band since 2009.
The band released its first record, Movement EP in 2002. The next year, the band released Reason EP produced by How To Save A Life co-producer Aaron Johnson, which garnered the band local fame and acclaim. Westword, an alternative newsweekly, gave Reason EP a positive review, stating "The music is epic, no doubt, but it's played on a wholly human scale". Despite these reviews, the band struggled to launch a single; Denver radio station KTCL rejected eight of their songs before the band decided to submit a demo of "Cable Car". The song found airplay on a KTCL radio show highlighting local bands, and the radio station received a large number of requests for it soon thereafter. The band changed the name of the song to "Over My Head (Cable Car)", and as the song's airplay increased alongside their local following, the band was voted "Best New Band" by Westword in 2004. Epic Records A&R man Daniel Davis discovered the band through the article in Westword and soon after, Epic Records officially signed the band on December 17, 2004.
How to Save a Life (2005–2007)
The band's debut album How to Save a Life was released on September 13, 2005; its style is between traditional rock and alternative rock. "Over My Head (Cable Car)" was released as the first single from the album, and it soon became a top 40 hit on the Modern Rock Tracks chart in late 2005, peaking at No. 37. The single gained airplay nationally, entering the Billboard Hot 100 chart on the issue marked February 25, 2006. Fourteen weeks later, it reached its peak position at No. 8 on the Hot 100 chart. On the Billboard Adult Top 40 chart, the single reached the No. 2 position. Internationally, the song was a Top 25 hit in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Ireland, New Zealand and the UK. The song was the fifth-most downloaded single of 2006.
While "Over My Head (Cable Car)" was rising on the charts, the song "How to Save a Life" was first featured during a second season episode ("Superstition", aired March 19, 2006) of Grey's Anatomy, and then on a fifth season episode ("My Lunch", aired April 25, 2006) of Scrubs. Despite not having been originally released as a single, "How to Save a Life" entered the Hot 100 chart on the issue marked April 15, 2006. The song was released as the band's second single. On August 18, 2006, ABC announced that the song would be used for the main advertising promotion for the season premiere of Grey's Anatomy.
Only weeks after this promotion started, the song became the Fray's second Top 40 hit in the United States. The song peaked at No. 3 on the Hot 100 chart, surpassing the peak position of "Over My Head (Cable Car)". It tied for the seventh longest charting single of all time on the Hot 100 chart, with Santana's "Smooth", at 58 consecutive weeks. The song also topped the Adult Top 40 chart for 15 consecutive weeks. "How to Save a Life" was a major hit internationally, topping the singles chart in Ireland, Spain and Canada. The song also charted in the top five in Australia, Italy and Sweden and was the band's first hit in the United Kingdom, peaking at No. 4 on the UK Singles Chart.
"Look After You" was released as the third single from the album. It peaked at No. 59 on the Hot 100 chart and was the band's first single to miss the Top 40. The song was written by the lead singer of the Fray Isaac Slade. It is about his then girlfriend and future wife. How to Save a Life peaked at No. 15 on the U.S. Billboard 200 chart, and charted in the top ten in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and the UK and was certified the best-selling digital album of all time, breaking the record held previously by Coldplay's X&Y.
While the album met with commercial success, critical reception from mainstream critics was mixed; Allmusic gave the album a modest review, but stated that the Fray "lacked originality" and the album itself lacked any "inspiration and excitement". Stylus Magazine gave the album a negative review, stating "The Fray, as a rule, are moribund, emotionally strained and uninvolving." Rolling Stone and Blender echoed many of these statements while giving the album three stars out of five. However, the album garnered acclaim from Christian music magazines; Jesus Freak Hideout gave the album a glowing review, stating "How to Save Life is nearly perfect" and gave the album a 4.5/5 star rating. HM Magazine, another American magazine devoted to Christian music also gave the album a positive review, rating it 4/5 stars.
To promote the album, the Fray began a worldwide tour and released a live album, Live at the Electric Factory: Bootleg No. 1, on July 18, 2006. The concert was recorded on May 21, 2006, at the Electric Factory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On September 19, they re-released How to Save a Life as a CD/DVD set including a documentary on the making of the album. On September 4, 2007, the band released another live album, Acoustic in Nashville: Bootleg No. 2, which was recorded in late 2006. The album could only be purchased with the original CD from Target but was made available on the iTunes Music Store on November 13, 2007. On October 16, 2007, the band re-released their 2003 EP, Reason. The band also released a live cover of John Lennon and Yoko Ono's "Happy Xmas (War Is Over)" as a 2006 Christmas single (it debuted and peaked on the Hot 100 chart at No. 50 on the strength of a large number of digital downloads) and worked with Reverb, a non-profit environmental organization, for their 2007 summer tour.
The Fray (2008–2010)
The band finished recording their self-titled second album at the end of July 2008 for a February 3, 2009, release. The album was produced by Aaron Johnson and Mike Flynn, the same production duo from the band's debut album, and recorded by Warren Huart. A documentary, Fair Fight, directed by Rod Blackhurst was included with the first 300,000 copies of the second album. The lead single from the album, "You Found Me" debuted online on December 9, 2009, on VH1.com, and debuted at No. 28 on the Hot 100 chart, the band's highest debut on the chart to date. The song peaked at No. 7 on the chart, (making it the band's second highest charting single) and topped the Billboard Hot Adult Top 40 Tracks chart as well as the Australian Singles Chart, becoming the band's first song to reach number-one in Australia. It is also the band's third song to sell 2 million digital downloads in the United States, after "Over My Head (Cable Car)" and "How to Save a Life". Following the success of "You Found Me", the album, released on February 3, 2009, debuted at No. 1 on the Billboard 200 chart, selling 179,000 copies in its first week of release. The music video was directed by fellow Denverite Josh Forbes. It was filmed in Chicago and was an homage to the Wim Wenders film Wings of Desire
On February 3, 2009, the Fray released their self-titled second effort to the Christian market. The band opted to release their second album in both markets. In a video for the song "You Found Me" that includes some behind-the-scenes footage, lead vocalist Isaac Slade says that this album is what they would have done the first time if they had the time, and where they want to go for the rest of their career. On February 13, 2009, the Fray wrote a song called "Be the One". The song was written in the space of 24 hours when asked the band to write a love song for the occasion of Valentine's Day. The demo version of the song was released on the band's official website on November 11, 2009. The band also covered Kanye West's song "Heartless" which charted at No. 79 on the Billboard Hot 100, while a video for the cover was released worldwide on iTunes on August 11, 2009. Both songs were included in the deluxe edition of the band's second album. "Heartless" was also included on the band's third live album, The Fray: Live from SoHo, which was released on April 7, 2009. On November 10, 2009, the band released the deluxe edition of The Fray which contained a second disc of never-before-released songs, including "Heartless".
"Never Say Never" was released as the second single from the album. The song was a modest hit in the US; it peaked at No. 32 on the Hot 100 chart and at No. 10 on the Hot Adult Top 40 Tracks chart while internationally it failed to match the success of "You Found Me". The third single from the album, "Syndicate", released on January 12, 2010, peaked at No. 16 on the Hot Adult Top 40 Tracks and at No. 40 on the Pop Songs chart, becoming the band's second single to miss the Hot 100 chart and the lowest charting single from the album.
Again, critical reception to the album was mixed. Rolling Stone termed the album as "nothing new" while Entertainment Weekly stated, "The Fray is all blah, all the time: more minor-key melodies and more dreary tempos." Allmusic, whilst giving the album a modestly positive review, echoed many of these statements, commenting that "the songcraft remains virtually unchanged" and termed the album as "How to Save a Life – Part 2." However, AbsolutePunk criticized the negative reviews, stating, "For what it's worth, the Denver quintet has released a charming, appealing record that would be far more praiseworthy if it didn't sound so much like its predecessor... it may be an album a lot like its predecessor, but that isn't exactly a bad thing." At Metacritic, a review aggregate website, the album holds a rating of 56/100 based on 9 professional reviews, meaning "mixed or average reviews".
Christmas EP (2009–2010)
The Fray collaborated with Timbaland on his album, Shock Value II, which was released on December 8, 2009. The band was featured on the song "Undertow", which, despite not being released as a single, entered the Billboard Hot 100 at No. 100, the week ending November 28, 2009. On December 22, 2009, the band released an EP, Christmas as a free download from the band's official website. The EP contained five acoustic covers of popular Christmas carols and was recorded by Warren Huart in Nashville at Blackbird Studios.
In an interview with Westword in June 2010, guitarist Dave Welsh announced that the band was working on an EP containing covers of songs by artists such as Annie Lennox, Billy Joel, Bruce Springsteen and Bob Marley but did not give a specific release date.
Scars and Stories (2011–2012)
The Fray's third album Scars and Stories, was produced by Brendan O'Brien (best known for his work with Bruce Springsteen, Pearl Jam and Rage Against the Machine) and was recorded in Blackbird studio, located in Nashville, Tennessee. During an interview with Colorado Daily, Slade explained why the band had recruited O'Brien as their producer; "Sonically, we wanted to make this record sound as close as possible to the live shows", citing Pearl Jam and Bruce Springsteen as influences for the sound of the record that they were trying to capture.
As for the lyrical aspect of the album, Slade said that the lyrics capture a more aggressive tone than their previous records. Guitarist Joe King recorded on the album.
Mixing for the third record began on June 21, 2011. On July 14, 2011, Slade confirmed that the mixing and recording for the third album had been completed via Twitter "Finished our third record about half an hour ago.". When asked about possible release dates for the album, Slade mentioned his hope that the album will be out by October 2011, or at least in time for Thanksgiving. However the date was pushed backed to early 2012.
On September 13, during a live performance at the Ryman Auditorium in Nashville, the band announced that the new album is titled Scars and Stories, and performed the first single from the new album titled "Heartbeat". They also performed a song called "Run For Your Life" which is going to appear on the third record.
The band also contributed a cover of "Take Your Time" to the tribute album Listen to Me: Buddy Holly, released September 6, 2011, as well as a cover of "Mahna Mahna" for the album Muppets: The Green Album.
The band announced in an interview on the VH1 Top 20 Video Countdown that the second single from the album would be the fourth track, "Run for Your Life." The video for the song was released on March 13, 2012.
The third single from the album is the closing track, "Be Still." This song featured in Criminal Minds, Season 7, Episode 20, The Company, as the song when Cindy, Derek Morgan's cousin, was finally reunited with her family at the end of the episode.
Helios (2013–present)Main article: Helios (album)
After Scars and Stories, Slade promised a fourth album by the end of 2013.
On June 4, 2013, the Fray announced that they had begun recording their fourth album. The first single from the album, "Love Don't Die", was released to radio on October 15, 2013, and to iTunes on October 21, 2013. It was accompanied by a lyrics video, also released on October 21, 2013, and an official music video, filmed on November 13, 2013, at Cowboy Palace Saloon in Chatsworth, California, and released on December 6, 2013. The album, titled Helios, had been scheduled to be released on January 14, 2014, but has been pushed back to February 25, 2014. Instead, another song, titled "Hurricane", was made available on January 14, 2014.Gitlin, Lauren (August 10, 2006). "Enter the Fray". Rolling Stone. Tomlinson, Sarah (February 24, 2006). "Life less ordinary". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 13, 2010. "Let Us Fray". Westword.com. Retrieved April 5, 2010. "The Fray biography". Allmusic.com. Retrieved April 5, 2010. "Reason EP review". Westword.com. February 19, 2004. Retrieved April 5, 2010. Smith, Dane (March 30, 2006). "The Fray Live the High "Life"". RollingStone.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010. "Completely Frayed". Longmont Daily Times-Call. May 12, 2006. |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help) "The Fray". oxfordmusiconline.com. Retrieved June 15, 2014. "Modern Rock Tracks". Billboard. October 22, 2005. "Billboard Hot 100". Billboard. October 7, 2006. "Hot Adult Top 40 Tracks". Billboard. October 7, 2006. Barnes, Ken (July 13, 2006). "First half sales: Downloads up; CDs, revenues down". USA Today. Retrieved February 15, 2010. "NBC.com Scrubs: Music Guide". Scrubs-Tv.com. Retrieved February 15, 2010. Albiniak, Paige (September 24, 2006). "How 'Grey's' got that catchy new "theme" song". New York Post. "The Fray Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved April 6, 2010. "The Fray Billboard Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved April 6, 2010. "The Fray – How to Save a Life: Charts". aCharts.us. Retrieved February 15, 2010. "The Fray: 'How To Save A Life' Now The Biggest Selling Digital Album Of All Time!". Sony BMG. "The digital success of The Fray (3:38)". Reuters. Sendra, Tim. "Review: The Fray – How to Save a Life". . Retrieved October 23, 2006 "How to Save a Life – Album Review". Stylus Magazine. September 22, 2005. "Review: The Fray – How to Save a Life". Rolling Stone. September 22, 2005. Hunter, James (November 2005). "Review: The Fray – How to Save a Life". Blender. "The Fray – How To Save A Life". Jesus Freak Hideout. September 13, 2005. Callaway, Chris (January–February 2007). "The Fray How to Save a Life". HM Magazine (123): 64. ISSN 1066-6923. "The Fray: Official Website". TheFray.net. Retrieved February 15, 2010. "Reverb – Artists". Reverb. Retrieved February 15, 2010. "The Fray – "'You Found Me' (AOL Sessions)"". AOL Sessions. Retrieved February 15, 2010. Ben, Ayala (November 14, 2008). "The Fray unveiling song on ABC". Hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved February 15, 2010. Blackhurst, Rod (November 12, 2008). "Assorted Documentary Trivia". BlogSpot.com. Retrieved February 15, 2010. "The Fray Take 2". Denver Magazine. October 31, 2008. Retrieved February 15, 2010. "Rod Blackhurst ::Director :: Photographer". Rod Blackhurst. Retrieved February 15, 2010. Herrera, Dave. "Rod Blackhurst puts up a Fair Fight when he has to – Denver Music – Backbeat Online". Blogs.WestWord.com. Retrieved February 17, 2010. "The Fray's "You Found Me" video premieres". Westword.com. Retrieved April 8, 2010. "The Billboard Hot 100 – You Found Me". Billboard. March 17, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-17. Billboard.com "The Billboard Hot Adult Top 40 Tracks – You Found Me". Billboard. Retrieved April 5, 2010. Top 50 Singles Chart – Australian Recording Industry Association "Top 50 Singles Chart – ARIA". ARIA. Retrieved April 5, 2010. Paul Grein, Chart Watch – Week Ending May 3, 2009: Age Is Just A Number, music.yahoo.com, May 3, 2009 Cite error: The named reference rollingstone.com was invoked but never defined (see the help page). "The Fray's Valentine's Day songwriting challenge". Westword.com. Retrieved April 5, 2010. "Hear The Fray's exclusive Q Challenge track here - News - QTheMusic.com". News.Q4Music.com. Retrieved February 17, 2010. "The Official The Fray Site". Blog.TheFray.net. Retrieved February 17, 2010. Kanye West- Heartless (The Fray Cover). YouTube. Retrieved February 17, 2010. Trust, Gary (May 21, 2009). "Chart Beat: Kris Allen, SWV, Green Day, Al B. Sure!". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved February 17, 2010. "Deluxe Edition of "The Fray" Out Now". Blog.TheFray.net. Retrieved February 17, 2010. "Radio Industry News, Music Industry Updates, Arbitron Ratings, Music News and more!". FMQB.com. Retrieved February 15, 2010. "The Fray – The Basics". Billboard. Retrieved February 15, 2010. "The Fray – The Fray". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 27, 2010. "The Fray (2009) – The Fray". Entertainment Weekly. January 21, 2009. "The Fray – The Fray – Review". Allmusic. Retrieved April 27, 2010. "Fray, The – The Fray – Album Review". AbsolutePunk. February 20, 2009. "The Fray by The Fray". Metacritic. Retrieved April 27, 2010. "The Fray gets into the holiday spirit". Westword.com. Retrieved April 5, 2010. "The Fray to release a covers album". Westword.com. Retrieved June 14, 2010. "The Fray opens for U2 Saturday, plays secret show in Boulder". Coloradodaily.com. Retrieved May 18, 2011. "Isaac Slade on the Fray's new album, working with Brendan O'Brien and opening for U2". Westword.com. Retrieved May 18, 2011. "Finished our third record about half an hour ago". Twitter.com. Retrieved July 17, 2011. "The Fray – Heartbeat Live". Youtube.com. Retrieved 14 MaySeptember 2011. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help) Ross, Matt (October 8, 2012). "The Fray Set to Start Work on Fourth LP". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 2, 2014. "The Fray - We started recording our 4th record". Facebook. June 4, 2013. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
Musical style and songwriting
How to Save a Life consisted of a mix of mid-tempo piano-driven pop rock tracks and power ballads. The band's second album spread the spectrum of the music: the pop rock songs were faster and more energetic, while the ballads were softer than the ballads on the first album.
Slade's vocals feature falsetto and a strong American accent. On the second album, his vocals were more aggressive, most notably on the tracks "We Build Then We Break" and "Say When".
The lyrics on both albums revolve around life's problems and issues. Common themes include happiness, sadness, death, the problem of evil, relationships, and war. The honest and emotional nature of the lyrics has also had critics labeling the Fray as emo, comparing them to mainstream emo acts like Jimmy Eat World. The Fray's initial songs contained lyrics with strong religious messages. However, by the time they began work on their debut album, the band decided against being an entirely religious outfit because they believe that God has called them away from the "Christian music genre and into a secular market.""The Fray – How to Save a Life Review". MusicianForums.com. December 15, 2005. Retrieved February 17, 2010. "The Fray: How to Save a Life : Music Reviews : Rolling Stone". RollingStone.com. September 22, 2005. Retrieved February 17, 2010. "The Fray: The Fray : Review : Allmusic". Allmusic.com. February 3, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2010. "Fray, The – The Fray". AbsolutePunk.net. February 20, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2010. Interview with The Fray. YouTube.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010. Interview with The Fray. YouTube.com. Retrieved February 23, 2010. Cite error: The named reference Sendra was invoked but never defined (see the help page). "Into The Fray". Retrieved February 23, 2010.